Introducion

Binary To Decimal Conversion

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ACL

Create and Configure Extended Access Control Lists (ACL)

Before continuing, refer Introduction to Access Control Lists lesson , if you are not familiar with Access Contol Lists. Refer Extended Access Control Lists (ACL) lesson if you are not familiar with Extended Access Control configuration IOS commands. You must be familiar with TCP port numbers for important services. Click the following link to learn… Continue reading Create and Configure Extended Access Control Lists (ACL)

ACL, Introducion

Extended Access Control List (ACL) – Established Keyword

The "established" keyword is used to indicate an established connection for TCP protocol. An established connection can be considered as the TCP protocol traffic originating inside your network, not from an external network. This means that the packets belong to an existing connection if the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) segmenthas the Acknowledgment (ACK) or Reset… Continue reading Extended Access Control List (ACL) – Established Keyword

ACL

Extended Access Control List (ACL) – TCP and UDP Port Numbers and Names

Using Extended Access Control List, we can filter traffic based on TCP or UDP port numbers or port names. Click the following link to know important TCP port numbers. You can specify a name also for TCP or UDP port numbers. For example, you can use the keyword smtp to match SMTP traffic (port number… Continue reading Extended Access Control List (ACL) – TCP and UDP Port Numbers and Names

ACL

Extended Access Control List (ACL) Placement

Extended Access Control List (ACL) can filter the traffic based many factors like source IP address, destination IP address, Protocol, TCP or UDP port numbers etc. Since an Extended Access Control List (ACL) can filter the IP datagram packet based on the destination IP address, it must be placed on the router which is near… Continue reading Extended Access Control List (ACL) Placement

ACL

Create And Configure Standard Access Control Lists, Access-list IOS command and access-group IOS command

                     Before continuing, refer Introduction to Access Control Lists lesson , if you are not familiar with Access Contol Lists. Refer Standard Access Control Lists lesson if you are not familiar not familiar with Standard Access Control configuration IOS commands. Standard Access Control Lists (ACLs) -… Continue reading Create And Configure Standard Access Control Lists, Access-list IOS command and access-group IOS command

ACL

Access Control List (ACL) – Wildcard Masks

Wildcard masks are used in Access Control Lists (ACL) to identify (or filter) an individual host, a network, or a range IP addresses in a network to permit or deny access . When using a wildcard mask, a 0 in a bit position means that the corresponding bit position in the address of the Access… Continue reading Access Control List (ACL) – Wildcard Masks

ACL

Standard Access Control List (ACL) Placement

Standard Access Control List (ACL) filters the traffic based on source IP address. Therefore a Standard Access Control List (ACL) must be placed on the router which is near to the destination network/host where it is denied. If we place the Standard Access Control List (ACL) near to source of the traffic, there is a… Continue reading Standard Access Control List (ACL) Placement

ACL

Access Control Lists (ACL)

Access Control Lists (ACL) are very powerful security feature of Cisco IOS. By using Access Control Lists (ACL), we can deny unwanted access to the network while allowing internal users appropriate access to necessary services. Access Control Lists (ACL) are a set of commands, grouped together (by a number or name), that are used to… Continue reading Access Control Lists (ACL)

Routing Protocol

Auto Summarization in EIGRP

Auto summarization is a feature which allows Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) tosummarize its routes to their classful networks automatically. For example, consider we are planning to use eight subnets of class B default network 172.16.0.0/16, subnetted using a three-bit subnetting as shown below. If we do a three-bit subnetting (Cick the following link… Continue reading Auto Summarization in EIGRP

Routing Protocol

EIGRP Metric Calculation Formula with Example

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) uses a complex equation to find the Route Metric value. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) consider the following network performance related attributes to calculate the EIGRP metric value. 1) Bandwidth 2) Delay 3) Reliability and 4) Load EIGRP Metric = 256*((K1*Bandwidth) + (K2*Bandwidth)/(256-Load) + K3*Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4))) By… Continue reading EIGRP Metric Calculation Formula with Example

Routing Protocol

Configure Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) can be configured in a router using the following IOS commands. Router(config)# router eigrp ASN Router(config-router)# network Network_ID ASN in the above IOS command stands for Autonomous System Number. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) - Lab Practice The following diagram shows our lab setup. We have three routers,… Continue reading Configure Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Routing Protocol

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary enhanced Distance Vector routing protocol. EIGRP is based on IGRP, hence the configuration is similar. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is considered as a Hybrid Routing Protocol because EIGRP has characteristics of both Distance Vector and Link State Routing Protocols. Both EIGRP and IGRP… Continue reading Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Routing Protocol

Hybrid Routing Protocols

A Hybrid Routing protocol has the advantages of both Distance Vector and Link State Routing protocols and merges them into a new protocol. Typically, hybrid routing protocols are based on a Distance Vector protocol but contain many of the features and advantages of Link State Routing protocols. Example: EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). Enhanced… Continue reading Hybrid Routing Protocols

Lessons

OSPF Area, OSPF Hierarchical Network Design, and advantages of OSPF Areas

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the recommended IGP for very large enterprise networks. Entire Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) network can be be divided up into small networks called OSPF Areas. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) supports hierarchical network design. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) allows the network to be designed in two layer… Continue reading OSPF Area, OSPF Hierarchical Network Design, and advantages of OSPF Areas

Lessons

OSPF Router ID, OSPF Router ID Selection Algorithm and Configure OSPF Router ID

Each Router in an OSPF network needs a unique OSPF Router ID. The OSPF Router ID is used to provide a unique identity to the OSPF Router. OSPF Router ID is an IPv4 address (32-bit binary number) assigned to each router running the OSPF protocol. OSPF Router ID should not be changed after the OSPF… Continue reading OSPF Router ID, OSPF Router ID Selection Algorithm and Configure OSPF Router ID

Protocol, Routing

OSPF Metric value Cost and OSPF default Cost Reference Bandwidth

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) uses "Cost" as the value of metric and uses a Reference Bandwidth of 100 Mbps for cost calculation. The formula to calculate the cost is Reference Bandwidth divided by interface bandwidth. For example, in the case of 10 Mbps Ethernet , OSPF Metric Cost value is 100 Mbps / 10… Continue reading OSPF Metric value Cost and OSPF default Cost Reference Bandwidth

Routing Protocol

Configure Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol Configuration Router(config)# router ospf process_ID Router(config-router)# network network_id wildcard_mask area area_# Note: Process id: A value in the range 1–65,535 identifies the OSPF Process ID. OSPF Process ID is a unique number on this router that groups a series of OSPF configuration commands under a specific running process. Wildcard… Continue reading Configure Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol

Routing Protocol

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol

               The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a link state protocol that handles routing for IP traffic. Its newest implementation, version 2, which is explained in RFC 2328, is an open standard. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standard (not proprietary) and it will run… Continue reading Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol

Routing Protocol

Link State Routing Protocols

                    Link state routing protocols maintain complete road map of the network in each router running a link state routing protocol. Each router running a link state routing protocol originates information about the router, its directly connected links, and the state of those links. This information… Continue reading Link State Routing Protocols

Routing, Routing Protocol

configure Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Configuration Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) can be configured in a router using the following IOS commands. If you have a new router with a latest IOS release, you may not find Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) configuration commands because Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is removed from new IOS… Continue reading configure Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Routing Protocol

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Introduction : The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol for IP. Some features of Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) uses a sophisticated metric based on bandwidth and delay. • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) uses triggered updates to speed-up convergence. • Interior Gateway Routing… Continue reading Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Routing

RIP Authentication Keychain Configuration

Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIPv1) doesn’t support authentication. Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2) is a Hybrid Routing protocol and RIPv2 allows packets to be authenticated via either an insecure plain text password or a secure MD5 hash based authentication. For authentication to work in RIPv2, both the sending and receiving routers must be… Continue reading RIP Authentication Keychain Configuration

Routing

Auto Summarization in RIP

Auto summarization is a feature which allows Routing Information Protocol (RIP) to summarize its routes to their classful networks automatically. For example, consider we are planning to use eight subnets of class B default network 172.16.0.0/16, subnetted using a three-bit subnetting as shown below. If we do a three-bit subnetting (Cick the following link if… Continue reading Auto Summarization in RIP

Routing Protocol

RIP Metric Hope Count and Hop Count Calculation

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) uses hop count as its metric value. Hop count is the number of routers (number of hops) from the source router through which data must pass to reach the destination network. In above lab topology, omnisecu.com.R1 is the Source Network router and omnisecu.com.R4 is the Destination Network router. From Source Network… Continue reading RIP Metric Hope Count and Hop Count Calculation

Routing Protocol

Configure Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2)

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Configuration Routing Information Protocol (RIP) can be configured in a router using the following IOS commands. The "version 2" IOS command specifies that we are using RIPv2. Router>enable Router#configure terminal Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# version 2 Router(config-router)# network network_id Routing Information Protocol (RIP) - Lab Practice The following diagram shows our… Continue reading Configure Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2)

Routing Protocol

Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2

Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIPv1) • RIPv1 is a Distance-Vector Routing protocol. • RIPv1 is a Classful routing protocol. Classful routing protocols support only the networks which are not subnetted. Classful routing protocols do not send subnet mask information with their routing updates. In other words, if you have a subnetted network in your… Continue reading Difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2

Routing Protocol

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) comes in two different versions: 1 and 2. Version 1 is a distance vector protocol (RFC 1058) and Version 2 is a hybrid protocol (RFCs 1721 and 1722). Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIPv1) RIPv1 uses local broadcasts to share routing information. These updates are periodic in nature, occurring, by default,… Continue reading Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

Routing Protocol

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector protocols are the simplest amoung Routing Protocols. Distance vector routing protocols use the distance and direction (vector) to find paths to destinations. A router which is running a Distance Vector routing protocol informs its neighbours about the network topology changes periodically, using limited broadcasts using destination IP address 255.255.255.255. Distance Vector protocols use… Continue reading Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Protocol, Routing

Dynamic Routing

Static routing allows routing tables in specific routers to be set up by the network administrator. Dynamic routing use Routing Protocols that dynamically discover network destinations and how to get to them. Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change if a router on the route goes down or if a new network is… Continue reading Dynamic Routing

Routing

Configure Static Routes and Default Routes

How to configure Static Routes Static Route can be configured by the following IOS commands. • Router(config)#ip route destination_network subnet_mask default_gateway [administrative_distance] [permanent] OR • Router(config)# ip route destination_network subnet_mask interface_to_exit [administrative_distance] [permanent] The permanent keyword will keep the static route in the routing table even when the interface the router uses for the static… Continue reading Configure Static Routes and Default Routes

Routing

Static Routes and Default Routes

What is a Static Route A static route is a route that is created manually by a network administrator. Static routes are typically used in smaller networks. In static routing, the Router's routing table entries are populated manually by a network administrator. The opposite of a static route is a dynamic route. In dynamic routing,… Continue reading Static Routes and Default Routes

Introducion

Administrative Distance

Administrative Distance (AD) is a value that routers use in order to select the best path when there are two or more different routes to the same destination from two different routing protocols. Administrative Distance counts the reliability of a routing protocol. Administrative Distance (AD) is a numeric value which can range from 0 to… Continue reading Administrative Distance

Protocol

Difference between Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is a Routing Protocol which is used to find network path information within anAutonomous System. Known Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Routing Protocols are Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a Routing… Continue reading Difference between Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)

Introducion

Autonomous System | Autonomous System Number

                        An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of networks under a single administrative control which could be an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or a large Enterprise Organization. An Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) refers to a routing protocol that handles routing within a single… Continue reading Autonomous System | Autonomous System Number

Introducion

Difference Between Routable Protocol and Non-Routable Protocol

Routable protocol A Routable protocol is a network protocol which can carry data from one network and can pass through the router to reach another network and be delivered to a computer in that remote network. Examples of routable protocols: Internet Protocol (IP -IPv4 and IPv6), IPX, AppleTalk, VINES Internetwork Protocol (VIP), DECnet Non-routable protocols… Continue reading Difference Between Routable Protocol and Non-Routable Protocol

Introducion

Important Key Combinations of Cisco IOS Command Line Interface (CLI), Cisco IOS Shortcut Keys

Following keys combinations are very useful while working with Cisco IOS Command Line Interface (CLI). Most important Cisco IOS Shortcut Keys are Key Combination Purpose CTRL-A Cursor moves to the "Beginning" of the Line. CTRL-E Cursor moves to the “End” of the line CTRL-B Cursor moves back "Back One Character". (or Left Arrow) CTRL-F Cursor… Continue reading Important Key Combinations of Cisco IOS Command Line Interface (CLI), Cisco IOS Shortcut Keys

Protect

Basic Cisco Router Configuration Commands

How to Configure a Router Hostname To configure a name for router, use hostname command from Global Configuration mode. Router>enable Router#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#hostname router1 router1(config)#exit router1# How to Configure a MOTD Banner for Router Users will be presented with a MOTD (Message of the DAY) banner… Continue reading Basic Cisco Router Configuration Commands

Protect

Configure Passwords to Secure Cisco Router

How to password protect Console Port To configure the console password, follow these steps. Router(config)# line console 0 Router(config-line)# password CISCO Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line#Ctrl-Z Router# How to password protect Auxilary (AUX Port) Port To configure the auxilary password, follow these steps. Router#config t Router(config)#line aux 0 Router(config-line)#password cisco Router(config-line)#login Router(config-line)# Ctrl-Z Router# How to password… Continue reading Configure Passwords to Secure Cisco Router

Lessons

Upgrade or install IOS from Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Server

To install IOS from TFTP server, follow these steps. 1) If you want a fresh install, erase the contents of the flash memory using the "erase" command as shown below. Router01#erase flash Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]y Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee <outout omitted> eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erasedee Erase of flash: complete 2) Copy… Continue reading Upgrade or install IOS from Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) Server